About Reduce Your CPA Exam Study Time
关于如何减少您准备注册会计师考试的学习时间

Study Efficiently
I am mostly an experience type learner and learn best by actively doing things like highlighting and writing all over my textbooks while I'm reading. My advice is to focus on the ways you learn best and spend the majority of your time on those.

有效地学习
我主要是一个经验型学习者,通过在我阅读时积极地做一些事情,比如在我的教科书中突出显示和写注释。 我的建议是专注于适合你的最好学习方式,并将大部分时间花在这些方面。

So what did I do differently to increase my productivity and shave 45 hours off my total study time?

那么我做了哪些不同的工作来提高我的工作效率并减少总学习时间45小时呢?

1.Skip the Video Lectures 跳过视频讲座

The lectures can be a great resource if you are primarily a visual learner but for me the instructors seemed to move through the material too slow which caused me to become bored and get easily distracted. The lectures introduce the section and go over the main topics, but this duplicated my study efforts as I would then have to read about the same thing in my textbook. I realized that I was not actually learning from the lectures but was actually learning from reading the textbook, taking notes, and doing the multiple choice quizzes. I quit watching the videos almost entirely and only watched the ones on sections where I felt weak and needed a little more explanation to fully grasp the material.

如果你主要是一个视觉学习者,讲座可以是一个很好的资源,但对我来说,教师似乎过材料的速度太慢,导致我变得无聊,容易分心。 讲座介绍了这一部分并介绍了主要内容,但这等于重复了我的学习工作,因为我必须在教科书中阅读相同的内容。 我意识到我实际上并没有从讲座中学习,而是从阅读教科书,记笔记和做多项选择测验中学习。 我几乎完全放弃观看视频,只观看那些我感到弱的部分,并需要更多的解释来完全掌握材料。

2.Don't Keep Retaking the Same Multiple Choice Practice Tests 不要持续的重新开始做相同的多项选择练习测试

While studying for my first exam I would retake the multiple choice tests over and over until I got at least a 90% before I moved on to the next section. Why? Because CPAexcel didn't give me "full credit" for completing the section if I didn't (Seems really lame now looking back on it). This benchmark is similar to the "Becker Promise" that Becker CPA Review offers which doesn't allow you to reuse their study materials free of charge if you don't complete each homework assignment with at least a 90%.

After my first test, I would review the answers I got wrong and retake the test. I found that I would start memorizing the answers just so I would score high on the next test even if I didn't fully grasp WHY it was the correct answer. On some of the longer tests I would sometimes have to retake them 3 or 4 times before I "passed"! This type of memorization is counter-productive to learning and focuses on getting a good grade which is NOT the goal of studying.

在我第一次考试的同时,我会一遍又一遍地重做多项选择题,直到至少达到了90%准确率我才会进入下一部分。 为什么呢? 因为如果我没有完成该部分,CPAexcel不会给我已完成这部分的"完全信任"(现在回过头来看,我觉得自己真的很差劲)。 此基准类似于Becker CPA Review提供的"Becker Promise",如果您没有完成每项至少90%准确率的家庭作业,则不允许您免费重复使用他们的学习资料。

在我的第一次测试之后,我会回顾我错误的答案并重新进行测试。 我发现我会开始记住答案,所以即使我没有完全掌握为什么它是正确的答案,我也会在下一次测试中获得高分。 在一些较长的测试中,我有时必须在"通过"之前重做3到4次! 这种记忆方式会对学习起反作用,并侧重于获得不是学习目标的好成绩。

I decided to challenge the status quo of most CPA review courses and stop caring about my test scores and focus on learning instead. Here was my new routine: less cpa exam study time
It did not matter if I got a 50% or a 90% on the test I would stick to this same process every time. Instead of retaking the test and seeing 80% of the same questions I already answered correctly, I focused solely on the 20% I missed and was amazed at how much more I was actually learning. This type of studying forces you to actively engage your mind rather than switching it into auto-pilot and will save you a ton of time.

我决定挑战大多数注册会计师考试课程的现状,不再关心我的考试成绩,而是专注于学习。这是我的新习惯: 减少cpa考试学习时间
如果我在测试中得到50%或90%并不重要,我每次都会坚持这个相同的过程。 我没有重新考试并看到我已经正确回答的80%相同的问题,而是专注于我错过的20%,并且对我实际学习的内容感到惊讶。 这种类型的学习迫使你积极参与你的思维,而不是将其转换为自动驾驶,并为你节省大量的时间。

CPA Exam Hacks and Shortcuts
These two simple strategies saved me 45 hours of my life and regardless of how you learn best there are ways to refine your studying habits and do the same. If you have been using a CPA study materials that aren't aligned with your personal learning preferences then I highly suggest you take a new materials that will increase your chances of passing.

注册会计师考试的技巧和捷径
这两个简单的策略为我节省了45个小时的时间,无论你如何最好地学习,都有办法改善你的学习习惯并做同样的事情。 如果您使用的CPA学习材料与您的个人学习偏好不一致,那么强烈建议更换成可能增加您通过机会的新学习资料。

Audit CPA Exam Tips
审计考试技巧

Auditing concepts can be difficult to understand, because an audit requires a different set of skills than posting accounting transactions or generating financial statements. To succeed on the Audit CPA exam (AUD) you need to put yourself in the shoes of an auditor, and understand the tests performed to issue an audit opinion.
Use these CPA Audit exam tips to better understand how to navigate the most difficult questions and topics and pass your upcoming exam!

审计概念可能难以理解,因为审计需要一组不同的技能,而不是发布会计事务或生成财务报表。 要成功完成审计注册会计师考试(AUD),您需要将自己置于审计师的角度,并了解为执行审计意见而执行的测试。
使用这些CPA审核考试技巧可以更好地了解如何浏览最困难的问题和主题并通过即将到来的考试!

Adjusting entry 调整分录

The accrual method of accounting requires companies to use the matching principle, which matches revenue earned with the expenses incurred to produce the revenue. This rule applies, regardless of the timing of cash inflow and outflows.

权责发生制会计方法要求公司使用匹配原则,该原则将收入与产生收入所产生的费用相匹配。 无论现金流入和流出的时间如何,此规则均适用。

Now:
When you see questions on adjusting entries, remember that the entry requires one balance sheet and one income statement account. Assume, for example, that you owe $3,000 in payroll for the last week of December, and that payroll will not be paid until January 5th of the following year. Here is the adjusting entry:
December 31st
Debit wage expense $3,000
Credit accrued wages payable $3,000
(To post wage expense on 12/31)

Wage expense is an income statement account, and accrued wages payable is a balance sheet account.
Here is the entry when the wages are paid on January 5th:
January 5th
Debit accrued wages payable $3,000
Credit cash $3,000
(To pay wages on 1/5)

现在:
当你看到关于调整分录的问题时,记住这个分录需要一个资产负债表和一个损益表账户。例如,假设你欠了去年12月最后一周的工资3000美元,而且工资要到下一年的1月5日才能支付。调整分录如下:
12月31日
借记工资费用3000美元
应付的应计工资为3000美元
(12/31张贴工资费用)

工资费用是损益表账户,应计工资是资产负债表账户。 以下是1月5日支付工资的条目:
1月5日
应支付的应计工资的借方
信贷资金3000美元
(1/5支付工资)

Asset valuation 资产估值

Most assets are valued at historical cost, or the purchase price of the asset. Accounting principles use historical cost, because the purchase price can be easily confirmed. Fair market value and other methods are not widely used to value assets.

大多数资产是以历史成本或资产购买价格来估价的。会计原则使用历史成本,因为购买价格可以很容易确定。公允市场价值等方法并没有被广泛用于资产的价值评估。

Audit opinions and fraud 审计意见与舞弊

An audit opinion states whether or not the financial statements are free of material misstatement. Because an audit opinion does not state that the financial statements are free of all errors, the auditor can perform test work on a sample basis. CPAs use statistics to determine the required sample size, and the results of the sample can be applied to the entire population tested.

审计意见书说明财务报表是否无重大错报。因为审计意见没有说明财务报表没有任何错误,所以审计人员可以在抽样的基础上进行测试工作。注册会计师使用统计数据来确定所需的样本量,并且样本的结果可以应用于整个被测人群。

Here's the deal 交易是这样的:

Performing an audit may not uncover fraud, which is defined as willful intent to deceive. Fraud is particularly difficult to uncover if two or more employees collude and work together to avoid internal controls.
If a business suspects that a fraud has occurred, the firm may engage a CPA to test every transaction in a particular account, in order to uncover fraud.

执行审计可能无法发现欺诈,欺诈被定义为故意欺骗。 如果两个或多个员工勾结并共同努力以避免内部控制,则欺诈尤其难以发现。
如果企业怀疑发生了欺诈,公司可以聘请注册会计师来测试特定账户中的每笔交易,以便发现欺诈行为。

Confirmations 确认

Every AUD exam includes questions regarding confirmations, and confirming information with a third party is considered more reliable the documentation provided by the client. An auditor may send confirmations to a bank to confirm an account balance, or send confirms to customers who have a large balance in accounts receivable.

每个AUD考试都包含有关确认的问题,客户提供文档并且与第三方确认信息被认为更可靠。 审计师可以向银行发送确认信息以确认账户余额,或向应收账款余额较大的客户发送确认信息。

Engagement letter 聘书

The engagement letter is a written agreement between the client and the CPA firm performing the audit, and some components of the engagement letter may be confusing to exam candidates.

聘书是客户与会计师事务所之间进行审计的书面协议,其部分内容可能会让考生感到困惑。

An auditor uses judgment when selecting the audit procedures to be performed, and there is not one set of procedures performed for every audit. The client is responsible for implementing a system of internal controls, but the auditor must comment on any internal control weaknesses noted during the audit. Finally, the financial statements are the responsibility of management, and not the auditor.

审核员在选择要执行的审核程序时使用判断,并且没有为每次审核执行一组程序。 客户负责实施内部控制系统,但审计师必须评估审计期间发现的任何内部控制缺陷。 最后,财务报表是管理层的责任,而不是审计师。

Inventory count 库存盘点

The best way to confirm the existence of inventory is to perform a physical count, and most auditors require that a count take place before issuing an unqualified audit opinion.If you haven't participated in a physical inventory count, some aspects of the count may not be familiar to you. Here are some important components of an inventory count.

确认库存是否存在的最佳方法是进行实物计数,大多数审计员要求在发布无保留的审计意见之前进行计数。如果您没有参加实际库存盘点,那么您可能不熟悉计数的某些方面。 以下是库存盘点的一些重要组成部分。

Access during the count: No inventory can move in or out of the area where inventory is stored during the count. Inventory counts typically take place in a warehouse or retail shop, and the access to the location should be restricted during the count. This ensures that the count is performed using the most recent inventory listing from the accounting system.
Obsolete inventory: Keep an eye out for obsolete inventory, or items that have been in inventory for a long time and are not selling. Obsolete inventory should be expensed by writing off the value of the inventory to cost of goods sold. Every inventory audit program requires the auditor to ask company managers about obsolete inventory.
All tags collected: Every physical inventory item is tagged, and the tag lists the number of items, a product description, and the cost of the items tagged. If you're a sporting goods retailer, for example, you might carry a box of 50 baseball gloves in inventory. All inventory tags generated from the accounting system must be placed on inventory and checked during an inventory count.The AUD test includes several questions on inventory counts, so make sure that you understand these concepts.

计数期间的访问:在计数期间,没有库存可以进出存储库存的区域。存货盘点通常发生在仓库或零售商店,在盘点期间应该限制对地点的访问。这确保使用来自会计系统的最新库存清单执行计数。
过期库存:留意过期库存,或库存已久而未售出的物品。过时的存货应通过冲销存货的价值来计入销售成本。每一个存货审核计划都要求审核员向公司经理询问存货过期的情况。
收集的所有标签:每个实体库存项目都有标签,标签列出了项目的数量、产品描述和标签项目的成本。例如,如果你是一家体育用品零售商,你可能会在库存中携带一盒50只棒球手套。从会计系统生成的所有库存标签都必须放在库存上,并在盘点期间进行检查。AUD测试包括几个关于存货计数的问题,所以确保你理解这些概念。

Materiality 重要性

Materiality is defined as a dollar amount that is large enough to be relevant to a financial statement reader, and there is not a set dollar amount that is considered material for every audit. The most important aspect of materiality is a misstatement of net income, because net income is a key metric used to value a company.

重要性被定义为与财务报表读者相关的金额,并且没有一个固定的金额被认为是每一次审计的材料。重要性最重要的方面是净收益的错报,因为净收益是衡量公司价值的一个关键指标。

But here's the kicker:
During audit planning, the audit staff will decide on a level of tolerable misstatement for each account balance. If, for example, the balance of accounts receivable is $2 million, the auditor may decide that any misstatement greater than $500 is material, which means an adjusted entry should be posted.

但关键在于:
在审计计划期间,审计人员将决定每个账户余额的可容忍错报水平。例如,如果应收账款余额为200万美元,审计人员可能会认为任何超过500美元的错报都是重要的,这意味着应公布调整后的分录。

Sales and receivables 销售和应收账款

When an auditor performs an analytical review, the accountant compares balances in the financial statement to see if the relationships are reasonable. This analysis includes a review of trends from one year to the next. It's very likely that you'll see questions on the relationship between credit sales and receivables.

当审计师进行分析性审查时,会计师会比较财务报表中的余额,以确定关系是否合理。 该分析包括对一年到下一年趋势的回顾。 您很可能会看到有关信用销售和应收账款之间关系的问题。

Credit sales are transactions that are not immediately paid in cash, and credit sales increase the accounts receivable balance. If your firm increases credit sales to new customers, you may find that new customers don't pay as quickly as your existing client base.

信用销售是指不立即以现金支付的交易,信用销售增加应收账款余额。 如果您的公司增加了对新客户的信用额度,您可能会发现新客户的支付速度不如您现有的客户群。

What's the bottom line?

If the accounts receivable balance grows at a faster percentage rate than credit sales, you may not be able to generate enough cash to operate each month. Growing credit sales by 10% will increase profits, but if the accounts receivable balance grows by 30%, if may create a cash shortage.

什么是底线?

如果应收账款余额以比信贷销售更快的百分比增长,您可能无法产生足够的现金来每月运营。 信贷销售额增长10%将增加利润,但如果应收账款余额增长30%,则可能造成现金短缺。

Sampling 采样

Sampling is defined as applying an audit procedure to less than 100% of the items in a population. Keep in mind, however, that if exceptions are found as samples are tested, the auditor will expand the audit work by testing more items.

抽样定义为将审计程序应用于人口中少于100%的项目。 但请记住,如果在测试样本时发现异常,审核员将通过测试更多项目来扩展审核工作。

Assume, for example, that an auditor pulls a sample of client checks with a dollar amount of $1,000 or more. The client's internal controls require two signatures on every check of $1,000 or more, and the auditor selects 50 checks for test work. If the auditor reviews checks that do not have two signatures, the sample size will be expanded. An auditor cannot rely on a sample that contains errors, because the same error rate may apply to the entire population.

例如,假设审计员提取的客户支票样本的金额为1,000美元或更多。 客户的内部控制在每次1000美元或更多的检查时需要两个签名,审核员选择50个检查进行测试工作。 如果审核员检查没有两个签名的检查,则将扩展样本量。 审核员不能依赖包含错误的样本,因为相同的错误率可能适用于整个人口。

Search for unrecorded liabilities 搜索未记录的负债

Auditors plan the engagement so that each account in the balance sheet is audited, and auditors are concerned about overstatement of asset accounts and liability accounts that are understated. This auditing concept is based on the balance sheet formula: Assets – liabilities = equity

审计师计划参与计划,以便对资产负债表中的每个账户进行审计,审计人员担心资产账户和低估责任账户的多报。 此审计概念基于资产负债表公式:资产 - 负债=权益

If an asset account, such as accounts receivable, increases, the firm's equity balance also increases. On the other hand, a decrease in accounts payable (a liability account) also increases equity. The auditor's goal is to audit each balance sheet account, to ensure that each account is materially correct.

如果应收账款等资产账户增加,公司的权益余额也会增加。 另一方面,应付账款(负债账户)的减少也增加了股权。 审计师的目标是审计每个资产负债表帐户,以确保每个帐户在实质上是正确的。

The search of unrecorded liabilities is a procedure that confirms accounts payable. The auditor scans large checks written shortly after the fiscal year end and reviews the accounts payable detail. An auditor wants to see if the check is paying a liability that was posted to accounts payable.

Assume, for example, that a company has a December 31st fiscal year end. A $5,000 check paid to a vendor on January 10th was not listed on the December 31st accounts payable detail. If the client was incurred the expense before year-end, the $5,000 should be added to accounts payable by posted an adjusting entry.

搜索未记录的负债是确认应付账款的程序。 审计员扫描财政年度结束后不久写入的大额支票,并审查应付账款明细。 审计员想知道支票是否支付了应付账款的负债。

例如,假设一家公司在12月31日的财政年度结束。 1月10日支付给供应商的5,000美元支票未列入12月31日的应付账款明细。 如果客户在年底前支付了费用,则应通过发布调整条目将5,000美元添加到应付账款中。

Segregation of duties职责分离

Segregation of duties is a concept that applies to many audit procedures, and every accountant must understand this topic. This concept is the only way to reduce the risk of fraud, particularly fraud committed by workers within a business.
You might be wondering:
How can I protect my firm from fraud? To protect yourself, make sure that you understand the three types of duties that must be segregated among different employees:
Physical custody of assets: One worker should have physical custody of assets, such as the checkbook, or the keys to the warehouse.
Authorization: A second person, usually the owner, should have authority to move assets. An authorized check signer, for example, has the ability to move cash by signing a check.
Recordkeeping: If possible, a third worker should be responsible for posting accounting activity. That would include the task of reconciling the bank accounts, for example.

Ideally, three separate people should handle these duties. The Audit CPA exam asks many questions on this topic, so make sure that you're clear about segregation of duties.

职责分离是一个适用于许多审计程序的概念,每个会计师都必须理解这个主题。这一概念是降低欺诈风险的唯一方法,尤其是企业内工人所犯的欺诈行为。

你可能想知道:
如何保护我的公司免受欺诈?为了保护自己,请确保您了解必须在不同员工之间隔离的三种职责:
资产的实际保管:一名工人应具有资产的实际保管权,例如支票簿或仓库的钥匙。
授权:第二个人,通常是所有者,应该有权移动资产。例如,授权检查签名者可以通过签署支票来转移现金。
记录保存:如果可能,第三名工作人员应负责发布会计活动。例如,这将包括协调银行账户的任务。

理想情况下,三个独立的人应该处理这些职责。审计注册会计师考试就此主题提出了许多问题,因此请确保您明确了职责分离。

Invest In Your Audit Exam Prep 投资你的审计考试准备

The AUD exam can be difficult, particularly if you haven't worked as an auditor for a CPA firm. While this test does not have as many calculations as other sections of the CPA exam, you still need to invest a great deal of time to study for it.
The best way to supplement your studies and ensure you don't fall short of a passing grade is to do a ton of practice questions, over 1,000 multiple choice practice questions and answers covering all topics on on the AUD exam.

审计考试可能很难,特别是如果你还没有担任注册会计师事务所的审计师。 虽然此测试没有CPA考试其他部分那么多的计算,但您仍需要花费大量时间来学习它。
补充学习并确保你通过考试的最佳方法是做大量的练习题,超过1,000个多项选择练习题和答案,涵盖了审计考试的所有主题。

 

FAR CPA Exam Study Tips
财务报告考试技巧

The FAR CPA Exam section is the "number-crunching" part, and many students struggle with the number of calculations required on this test. In order to move through the test materials as quickly as possible, you need to understand some key concepts. Use these tips to understand the most important FAR topics and pass this section of the CPA exam on your first try!

财务报告会计师考试部分是"数字运算"的部分,许多学生都在为考试所需的计算量而挣扎。为了尽可能快地浏览测试材料,您需要了解一些关键概念。使用这些技巧来理解最重要的财务报告主题,在你的第一次尝试中通过这部分注册会计师考试!

Accrual Basis Accounting 权责发生制会计

Every FAR test covers the accrual basis method of accounting, which is required by Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), and this method instructs accountants to use the matching principle. CPAs must match the revenue generated with the expenses incurred to produce the revenue, regardless of the timing of cash inflow and outflows.

每个财务报告测试都包括应计基础会计方法,这是公认会计原则(GAAP)所要求的,并且该方法指示会计师使用匹配原则。 无论现金流入和流出的时间如何,注册会计师必须将产生的收入与产生收入所产生的费用相匹配。

Now:
Some exam candidates have trouble with the adjusting entries that are required by the accrual method. To keep things straight in your mind, remember that an adjusting entry involves one balance sheet account and one income statement account.
Assume, for example, that you owe $5,000 in wages on December 31st, and that you will process payroll on January 5th of the following year. Accrual accounting requires you to post an entry for the wage expense before the end of the year, so you record this adjusting entry:
December 31st
Debit wage expense $5,000
Credit accrued wages payable $5,000
(To record wages owed to employees on December 31st)
Here's the entry recorded when payroll is processed:
January 5th
Debit accrued wages payable $5,000
Credit cash $5,000
(To pay wages owed on December 31st)
Accrual accounting matches the revenue produced in December with the wage expense incurred in December.

现在:
一些考试考生在应计方法所需的调整条目方面存在问题。 为了记住事情,请记住,调整分录涉及一个资产负债表帐户和一个损益表帐户。
例如,假设您在12月31日欠工资5000美元,并且您将在下一年的1月5日处理工资单。 应计会计要求您在年末之前过帐工资费用条目,因此您记录此调整条目:
12月31日
借记工资费用 5,000美元
应计信贷应计工资 5,000美元
(记录12月31日欠雇员的工资)
这是处理工资单时记录的条目:
1月5日
借方应计工资为 5,000美元
信用现金 5,000美元
(支付12月31日欠的工资)
权责发生制会计将12月份产生的收入与12月份产生的工资费用相匹配。

Bond Premiums and Discounts 债券溢价及折扣

Accounting for bonds is often poorly explained, particularly if the instructor does not have experience in the financial services industry. Financial professionals have to explain bond premiums and discounts to customers, and answer questions if the explanation is not clear.

债券会计经常被解释得很糟糕,特别是如果教师没有金融服务业的经验。金融专业人士必须向客户解释债券溢价和折扣,如果解释不清楚则需要回答问题。

Here's the deal:
For starters, bonds are typically issued at a face amount (par amount) of $1,000, or a multiple of $1,000. Since bonds are traded on exchanges, bonds can be bought or sold at different prices. If a bond is purchased at $1,100, the purchase price is a premium (more than par), and a bond purchased at $980 (less than par) is a discount price.
The bond purchased at $1,100 has a $100 premium, and the premium is an additional cost that is reclassified into bond expense over the remaining life of the bond. If the bond matures in 10 years, for example, the annual expense may be ($100 premium / 10 years), or $10 a year.
On the other hand, the bond purchased at $980 has a $20 discount, and the discount is additional income that is reclassified into bond income over the remaining life of the bond. If the bond matures in 10 years, the annual income may be ($20 premium / 10 years), or $2 a year.
A bond premium creates more expense for the buyer, while a discount creates more income for the buyer.

交易是这样的:
首先,债券通常以1,000美元的面值(面值)或1,000美元的倍数发行。由于债券在交易所交易,债券可以以不同的价格买卖。如果以1,100美元购买债券,则购买价格为溢价(超过票面价值),以980美元(低于票面价值)购买的债券为折扣价格。
以1,100美元购买的债券具有100美元的溢价,而溢价是在债券的剩余期限内重新分类为债券费用的额外成本。例如,如果债券在10年内到期,则年度费用可能是(100美元溢价/ 10年),或每年10美元。
另一方面,以980美元购买的债券有20美元的折扣,折扣是在债券剩余期限内重新分类为债券收入的额外收入。如果债券在10年内到期,年收入可能是(20美元/ 10年),或每年2美元。
债券溢价为买方创造了更多的支出,而折扣为买方创造了更多的收入。

Capital Lease 资本租赁

If a business owner leases a vehicle or a building, the lease can be treated as an operating lease or a capital lease. CPA candidates need to know the specific criteria that must be met for a capital lease.

如果企业所有人租用一辆汽车或一幢建筑物,租约可视为经营租约或资本租约。注册会计师候选人需要知道资本租赁必须满足的具体标准。

An operating lease means that no asset is created when the owner enters into the lease agreement. If a business owner leases a car for $400 a month, the lease payments are immediately expensed as incurred.
A capital lease requires the owner to post an asset for the leased item. Using the same $400 car lease, the owner would set up a lease liability account for the required payments and post the leased vehicle as an asset. If any one of these four criteria is true, the lease is treated as a capital lease:

经营租赁意味着当业主签订租赁协议时不会创建任何资产。如果企业主以每月400美元的价格租赁汽车,则租赁付款将在发生时立即支出。
资本租赁要求业主为租赁物品过帐资产。使用相同的400美元汽车租赁,业主将为所需付款设置租赁负债账户并将租赁车辆作为资产过帐。如果这四个标准中的任何一个属实,则将租赁视为资本租赁:

Ownership: The lease transfers ownership of the asset to the lessee (the business leasing the asset) at the end of the lease term.
Bargain purchase option: The lease contains a purchase option that allows the lessee to purchase the leased asset at the price that is less than fair market value.
Lease term: The term of the lease is greater than 75 percent of the asset's useful life.
Present value of payments: The present value of the minimum lease payments is greater than 90 percent of the fair market value of the leased asset.
Keep these rules in mind as you study for the FAR CPA exam section.

所有权:租赁在租赁期结束时将资产的所有权转让给承租人(租赁资产的业务)。
廉价购买选择权:租赁包含一个购买选项,允许承租人以低于公平市场价格的价格购买租赁资产。
租赁期限:租赁期限大于资产使用寿命的75%。
支付现值:最低租赁付款额的现值大于租赁资产公允市价的90%。
在您学习FAR CPA考试部分时,请牢记这些规则。

Consolidations 合并

Consolidated financial statements are difficult for exam candidates, because the topic is so complex. Creating a set of consolidated financial statements may require dozens of accounting entries, and it may be difficult for you to understand the process.

合并财务报表对于考生来说是很困难的,因为这个题目太复杂了。创建一组合并财务报表可能需要几十个会计分录,您可能很难理解这个过程。

But here's the kicker:
You can answer consolidation questions if you understand these key points:

"What if" financial statements: Both the parent company and each subsidiary maintain a separate set of financial statements. The consolidation presents the combined financial statements as if all the entities are one combined company, but each business operates separately.
Intercompany transactions: A parent company may have financial transactions with subsidiaries, but the financial impact of those transactions is eliminated in consolidation. Consolidated financial statements only present transactions that are with third party customers and vendors. If a subsidiary sells inventory to the parent for a $5,000 profit, the subsidiary's profit is eliminated in consolidation.
These points should help you understand the consolidation process.

但关键在于:
你可以回答整合问题,如果你了解这些关键点:

"如果"财务报表:母公司和子公司都保持一套独立的财务报表。合并显示合并后的财务报表,就好像所有实体都是一家合并的公司,但每个业务都是独立运作的。
公司间交易:母公司可能与子公司进行财务交易,但这些交易的财务影响在合并中被消除。合并财务报表只显示与第三方客户和供应商的交易。如果子公司以5000美元的利润向母公司出售库存,子公司的利润将在合并中被消除。
这些要点将帮助您理解整合过程。

Depreciation Methods 折旧方法

You'll encounter several different types of depreciation questions on the FAR exam, so keep these points in mind:

您将在财务报告考试中遇到几种不同类型的折旧问题,因此请牢记以下几点:

Total depreciation: The total dollar amount of depreciation is the same, regardless of the depreciation method chosen. If you purchase a $30,000 truck, for example, and assume that the salvage value of the truck is $0, total depreciation expense will be $30,000, regardless of what method you choose.
Timing: The differences in depreciation methods relate to the timing of the expense. An accelerated method, such as double declining balance (DDB), will post more depreciation expense in the early years and less in later years, while the straight-line method records the same amount of expense each year.
Net income: The depreciation method selected will impact net income. An accelerated method will post more depreciation expense in the early years and less net income, and net income will be higher in later years as depreciation expense is reduced.
Want to know the best part?
Since total depreciation is the same using each method, you can check your expense calculations to verify that the asset has been fully depreciated.
Use these tips to check your answers and confirm your understanding of depreciation methods.

折旧总额:无论选择何种折旧方法,折旧总金额都相同。例如,如果您购买价值30,000美元的卡车,并假设卡车的残值为0美元,则无论您选择何种方法,总折旧费用将为30,000美元。
时间安排:折旧方法的差异与费用的时间安排有关。加速方法,如双倍余额递减(DDB),将在早期发布更多折旧费用,而在以后年份则减少,而直线法每年记录相同数量的费用。
净收入:选择的折旧方法将影响净收入。加速方法将在早期发布更多的折旧费用并减少净收入,并且随着折旧费用的减少,后期的净收入将更高。
想知道最好的部分吗?
由于使用每种方法的总折旧相同,因此您可以检查费用计算以验证资产是否已完全折旧。
使用这些提示检查您的答案并确认您对折旧方法的理解。

Diluted earnings per share (EPS) 摊薄每股收益(EPS)

Earnings per share (EPS) is a key metric used to value a company's common stock, and EPS is defined as (net income available to common shareholders) divided by (weighted average common stock shares outstanding). While this basic definition may be clear to you, many CPA candidates are confused by diluted EPS.

每股收益(EPS)是衡量公司普通股价值的关键指标,EPS定义为(普通股股东可获得的净收入)除以(加权平均普通股股票)。虽然这个基本定义可能对你很清楚,但许多注册会计师候选人都被稀释的每股收益混淆。

What's the bottom line?
When something is diluted, it is spread out, and diluted EPS means that the same dollar amount of earnings is "spread" over more common stock shares. A business that generates $2.50 of EPS is less valuable than a firm producing $4 of EPS, so dilution can lower the perceived value of a company's stock.
Diluted EPS assumes that any security that can be converted into common stock is converted. If the CEO owns stock options that can be converted into 1,000 shares of common stock, for example, diluted EPS assumes that the 1,000 additional shares are issued to the CEO.

底线是什么?
当某样东西被稀释了,它就会分散,而每股收益被稀释了,这就意味着相同金额的收益会"分散"到更多的普通股上。一家公司如果每股每股收益为2.5美元,那么它的价值就不如一家公司每股4美元,因此,股权稀释会降低公司股票的感知价值。
稀释每股收益假设任何可以转换为普通股的证券都被转换。例如,如果CEO拥有可转换为1000股普通股的股票期权,那么稀释后的每股收益假设向CEO增发的1000股股票。

Indirect method of cash flows 间接现金流量法

While most CPA candidates understand the categories in the statement of cash flows (operating, financing, investing), many students are confused by the indirect method of cash flows.
The indirect method is only used for cash flow from operations. This method starts with net income and makes adjustments to arrive at cash flows from operations. To reconcile between net income and cash flow, you remove the non-cash income statement activity. Depreciation expense, for example, is a non-cash expense that is added back in the reconciliation from net income to cash flow.
If you see a question on this topic, remember that you reconcile from net income to cash flows from operations. Think about the income statement transactions that do not involve cash, such as depreciation expense and amortization expense.

虽然大部分注册会计师考生都知道现金流量表的类别(营运、融资、投资),但很多学生对现金流量表的间接法感到困惑。
间接法仅适用于经营活动的现金流量。这种方法从净收益开始,并进行调整,以得到经营的现金流。为了协调净收入和现金流之间的关系,您需要删除非现金损益表活动。例如,折旧费用是一种非现金费用,在对帐中从净收入增加到现金流。
如果您看到关于这个主题的问题,请记住,您将从净利润到运营现金流进行协调。考虑不涉及现金的损益表交易,如折旧费用和摊销费用。

Inventory Valuation 库存评估

 

The FAR exam covers several methods that are used to value inventory, but all methods operate using the same set of assumptions:
Total cost: The total cost of inventory is the same, regardless of the method used to value inventory.
Units purchased and sold: All inventory methods use the same number of units purchased and sold.
Timing of costs: The difference between inventory methods relates to the timing of costs. The first-in, first out (FIFO) method, for example, assumes that the oldest (usually cheapest) units are sold first, and that the more expensive items are sold last. As a result, the FIFO method generates a lower cost of goods sold (for the cheaper units) and a higher value of ending inventory. The last-in, first out (LIFO) method assumes that the newest (usually expensive) units are sold first, which produces a higher cost of goods sold. Eventually, the entire cost of inventory is reclassified into cost of goods sold, and that process is true for each inventory valuation method.

财务报告考试涵盖了几种用于评估库存的方法,但所有方法都使用相同的假设:
总成本:无论用于评估库存的方法如何,库存总成本都是相同的。
购买和销售的单位:所有库存方法使用相同数量的购买和销售的单位。
成本时间:库存方法之间的差异与成本的时间有关。例如,先进先出(FIFO)方法假定最早出售(通常是最便宜的)单元,并且最后出售更昂贵的单元。因此,FIFO方法可以降低销售成本(对于更便宜的单位)和更高的期末库存价值。后进先出(LIFO)方法假设最新(通常是昂贵的)单元首先出售,这导致更高的销售成本。 最终,库存的全部成本被重新分类为销售成本,并且该流程适用于每种库存评估方法。

Net Present Value 净现值

Present value is used to analyze the cash inflows and outflows generated by a particular asset or company project. If you purchase a machine for $20,000, for example, and new machine may be able to produce more units and increase profits.

现值用于分析特定资产或公司项目产生的现金流入和流出。 例如,如果您以20,000美元的价格购买机器,新机器可能能够生产更多的机器并增加利润。

It gets better:
As an accountant, you can measure the annual increase in profits generated by the machine.
Say, for example, that the machine increases profits by $6,000 a year for 10 years. You assume 5% interest rate and discount the payments by the 5% rate to calculate the present value of each payment. The present value of the $6,000 in annual cash inflows is ($6,000 X 7.722), or $46,332. The present value of the cash inflows and outflows is ($46,332 – $20,000), or $26,332.
Net present value is defined as the interest rate (or discount rate) that would produce a $0 value when the cash inflows and outflows are added.

它变得更好了:
作为会计师,您可以衡量机器产生的利润的年度增长。
比如说,这台机器10年的利润每年增加6,000美元。 您假设5%的利率并按5%的利率对付款进行贴现以计算每笔付款的现值。 年度现金流入6,000美元的现值为(6,000美元×7.722),即46,332美元。 现金流入和流出的现值为(46,332美元至20,000美元),即26,332美元。
净现值定义为在添加现金流入和流出时产生0美元价值的利率(或贴现率)。

Pensions 养老金

There are two basic types of pensions, and understanding the differences can really help you answer pension questions.

Defined Benefit Plan A defined benefit plan requires the employer to pay a specific dollar amount of pension benefit to a worker. If the earnings on the invested dollars are not enough to make the payments, the company is liable for any remaining balance.
Defined Contribution Plan A defined contribution plan, on the other hand, requires the employer to contribute a certain dollar amount into the pension plan. In this case, the company is not liable for a specific pension payment. The pension payment is based on the earnings generated by the investments, and the employer has no further liability to make additional payments.
When you read a question about pensions, be sure to remember these two definitions.

有两种基本类型的养老金,了解这些差异可以真正帮助您解决养老金问题。
确定的福利计划 固定福利计划要求雇主向工人支付特定金额的养老金福利金。 如果投资资金的收益不足以支付,公司将对任何余额负责。
定义的贡献计划 另一方面,固定缴款计划要求雇主向养老金计划缴纳一定的金额。 在这种情况下,公司不对特定的养老金支付负责。 养老金支付基于投资产生的收入,雇主不再承担额外付款的责任。
当您阅读有关养老金的问题时,请务必记住这两个定义。

Subsequent Event 后续事件

Definition: A subsequent event is a transaction or event that occurs after the balance sheet date but before the financial statements are issued. Typically, a business does not issue financial statements until a several weeks or even months after the end of the fiscal year. During that time, the accounting department prepares the financial statements, and an audit firm may also perform work.
A type 1 event existed on or before the financial date, and type 1 events may require an adjustment to the financial statements. Assume, for example, that your firm was involved in a legal matter that was unresolved as of December 31st, your balance sheet date. If the case is settled on January 10th of the following year, you may need to post an adjusting entry for the dollar amount of the settlement.
You may also see type 2 events on the test, which are events that did not exist as of the balance sheet date, but existed before the financial statements are issued. A type 2 event may require footnote disclosure, but no adjusting entry is required.

定义:后续事件是在资产负债表日期之后但在财务报表发布之前发生的交易或事件。通常情况下,企业在财政年度结束后的几周甚至几个月内不会发布财务报表。在此期间,会计部门准备财务报表,审计公司也可以执行工作。
在财务日期或之前存在类型1事件,类型1事件可能需要调整财务报表。例如,假设您的公司参与了截至12月31日(您的资产负债表日期)尚未解决的法律问题。如果案件在下一年的1月10日结算,您可能需要发布结算金额的调整分录。
您还可能在测试中看到类型2事件,这些事件是截至资产负债表日期时不存在的事件,但在发布财务报表之前存在。类型2事件可能需要脚注披露,但不需要调整条目。

Stay on Track and Pass The FAR CPA Exam 保持跟踪并通过财务报告CPA考试

The FAR section of the CPA exam can require hundreds of hours of study time, and this section of the CPA exam is historically the most difficult (lowest pass rates). Use these tips to stay on track as you study for FAR. If you understand these heavily tested concepts, you are much more likely to pass FAR.
The best way to supplement your FAR exam studies and ensure you don't fail is to do a ton of practice questions, over 1,000 multiple choice questions covering all topics on on the exam.

注册会计师考试的财务报告部分可能需要数百小时的学习时间,而CPA考试的这一部分在历史上是最困难的(最低通过率)。 在学习财务报告时,请使用这些提示保持正常。 如果您了解这些经过严格测试的概念,则更有可能通过财务报告。
补充财务报告考试并确保您不失败的最佳方法是做大量的练习题,涵盖考试所有主题的1,000多个选择题。

此篇没有干货写的不好, 谢绝转载.